Guide for Authors

Preparation of Manuscripts

A title page should include: the title, all authors' names and complete affiliations, the corresponding author's complete contact information, a running title (50 characters or less, including spaces), 2-6 key words, and sources of grants or funding supports and personal acknowledgments).

General manuscript format: Manuscripts must be written in English. Manuscript sections should be presented in the following order: title page, ABSTRACT (less than 200 words), INTRODUCTION, RESULTS, DISCUSSION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, REFERENCES, followed by figure legends, figures, and tables.

References: The reference style for GPB is Vancouver system. In order to follow the Vancouver system for references, the typesetters requires the full author name list of references in order to implement for your article.

Below is the information about the reference style for GPB:

Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.

List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.

Reference to a journal publication:
[1] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2000;163:51-9. Reference to a book:
[2] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan; 1979.Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
[3] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age. New York: E- Publishing Inc; 1999, p. 281-304. Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51-9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals" (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927-34).

Submission of Manuscripts

Manuscripts should be submitted online via Editorial Manager (EM) ( All submissions to the journal will undergo an initial editorial review. Those selected by the Editor as suitable for the aims and scope of the journal will be peer-reviewed. All selected manuscripts will be reviewed by two or three scholars for a decision on acceptance, revision, or rejection. After acceptance, a paper will be published mainly in chronological order. The journal only accepts papers that present original research that has not been published previously. Submission to the journal implies that another journal or book is not currently considering the paper for publication, and that its submission for publication has been approved by all of the authors and by the institution where the work was carried out. You can check the status of your submitted paper in the EES using a reference number that you will receive by e-mail.


Accepted articles will be published online on ScienceDirect as an article in press and assigned an issue at a later date. You can track the status of your accepted article throughout this process in our production tracking system ( using the reference No (e.g. GPB12) we sent to you in the acknowledgement e-mail. As soon as your article has been typeset, a page proof in the form of a PDF file will be sent to the corresponding author(s) for checking and correction of typographical errors and should be returned before the date specified. This usually happens 4-5 weeks after we receive your completed article. Accurate proofreading and clear marking of corrections are essential for the production of a quality article. Please note that careful proofreading is solely your responsibility. We will do everything we can to have your article corrected and published as quickly and accurately as possible. Therefore, it is important to ensure that all of your corrections are sent back to us in one communication.

Article Publishing Charge

As an open access journal with no subscription charges, a fee (Article Publishing Charge, APC) is payable by the author or research funder to cover the costs associated with publication. This ensures your article will be immediately and permanently free to access by everyone.
The Article Publishing Charge for this journal is USD 3500, excluding taxes.

Research4Life Article Publishing Charge waiver & discount options

We automatically apply Article Publishing Charge waivers or discounts to those articles in gold open access journals for which all authors are based in a country eligible for the Research4Life program. Find out more about the APC waiver and discount eligibility here.